--- Comment #28 from Regina Henschel <[hidden email]> ---
If you start the footnote area directly after the last line of text, you get
the large gap after the footnotes. From a typographical point of view, it would
be against the principle of a "footnote".
The gap is caused by the rule, that every footnote has to start at the same
page as the footnote anchor. If -as in the example document- Orphan/Widow
control is enabled, it can happen, that the footnote text together with (here
2) lines, does not fit on the page and therefore 2 lines and its footnotes go
to the next page. Another reason is the amount of footnotes per line.
From a typographical point of view, I would use endnotes per chapter,
technically done by making each chapter a section.
From content it is very questionable, to use a footnote that is longer as one
line. If the content is so large, that it needs several lines, then it belongs
to the text.
For the example document disable Widow control to get a more compact text. That
is not nice typography, but double line spacing is neither.
I would not follow the idea to put footnotes directly after the text.
> The "below the text" footnote formatting is required by his Doctoral program.
I too would like to see such requirement. I guess, that the requirement only
means to use footnotes and not endnotes.